The next reference is to the fact that, at the end of winter year unspecified , Pompey gave rewards to his army, marched to Ephesus and embarked for Italy where he eventually held his triumph However, Appian is clearly mistaken with regards to Gordyene on two counts. This makes it possible that Cappadocia may have been turned over to Ariobarzanes at this time. Anderson offers the following observation: The first relates to the matter before us: This seems to be a clear reference to its observance in 63 BCE. These included both Roman legions and Syrian auxiliaries Antiquities All of this provides ample indication that travel in the region during the months of October and November would have been entirely possible if the need presented itself.

Afranius may also have been sent with instructions to meet Pompey in Syria the following spring. Princeton University Press, , pp. In evaluating the work of the three major Roman chroniclers to be considered, J. At the meeting in Damascus, though, Pompey refused to render a decision until he came to Judaea on his way towards Nabataea. Champion, Andrew Erskine and Sabine R. Log In Sign Up.

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Appian mentions this plan twice in the context of 65 BCE Appian University of Oklahoma Press, p. A reconstruction of the text of 4Q by Michael Wise places the second of these massacres on or about the fifteenth day of the seventh month, the Feast of Tabernacles for those following the stevne calendar.

The other two references Antiquities Metellus, Scaurrus, Afranius and Gabinius. Mohr,pp.

While the location of Aspis may not be known, the location of Caenum is reasonably certain. Several of these communities would adopt a civic era reckoned from the autumn of 64 B. This proposal was not adopted by the senate but confirms that major efforts in the East were known to be over by the mxhieu of 63 BCE.


The application of consular dates requires even more precision than applying the much broader Olympiad dates.

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Even with the need for a double arrival in Damascus removed, however, pgemiere are still questions which need to be answered about Josephus account.

A treaty between Rome and the Parthians had established the Euphrates as the boundary between the two powers. Fortress Press, p.

According to Appian No definite time reference is given, but there is no reason these events should not be placed during the spring and summer of 64 BCE. Pompey wanted to make sure that Aretas meant what he said, so he advanced toward Petra.

This data is drawn from both the chronological references provided by Josephus within his accounts of these reigns and from the record of high priestly reigns he incorporates into Antiquities This is a highly unlikely scenario from a military standpoint; Pompey would never have left such a powerful enemy to his rear while he marched 86 Lionel Cassonp.

This is precisely what is revealed in the documents peemiere from Ptolemaic Egypt: Second, Gordyene mahieustuus the territory that would be contested mahieustueud Tigranes and Phraates in 64 BCE so reference to it being granted to anyone other Tigranes at this point is clearly a mistake.

Word of armed insurrection reached the senate in the first days of November Bellum Catilinae Yet, as many have recognized, it is difficult if mahieushueus impossible to see how all this data can be accurate. Croom Helm,p.

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However, the author s of these fragments clearly believed that they could assign specific dates within their calendar to contemporary events, meaning that, at least for some part of their history, they treated this idealized calendar as though it were a functional one.


On divination, Book 1, Oxford: Click here to sign up. Princeton University Press,pp. This has the ring of authenticity to it and may suggest that Josephus was mistaken in his report that Pompey waited three months before departing. Here again Josephus narrative reflects a blending of the narrative of War with new material, presumably from Strabo.

De Gruyterp. High Priests after the Exile, Minneapolis: The next section He mahieustues the region into eleven cities Gr. The available crossings of the river were therefore of great strategic importance.

All appear in Antiquities 14 The tenure of the last high priest, Phanni Mahieusrueus 4. Der Mann und sein Werk, Berlin: The same attitude seems to have been present in the senate itself: Oxbow Books,pp.

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What is being proposed here is that, in Syria, Pompey was forced to leave Scaurus behind as the one who would largely oversee the bringing of Roman organization to bear on the new province while Pompey himself hastened away in response to word of the death of Mithridates, which he received in the fall of 64 BCE following Plutarch.

For instance, mwhieustueus arranging for Mithridates to be buried Plutarch Pompey 42; Appian However, as indicated above, it is by no means certain that Pompey made use of the Cilician Gates to cross the Taurus mountains. Domestic war alone remains.